genetically modified organisms

Genetically modified organisms, chemicals and our health.

A look at Genetically modified organisms and the use of chemicals in our environment.

Many people believe that we need genetically modified foods in order to feed the world population.  Genetically modified organisms, or GMO’s as they are often called, are found in many places today, even in Denmark (http://www.dr.dk/P1/Netvaerket/Udsendelser/2011/01/05140145.htm).  Even countries that dont specifically grow crops that are GM, they still use products that have traces of it, including pig farming.  For example earlier this year a Danish farmer stopped using GMO soy feed for his pigs and noticed an improvement and less illness (see the Effektivt landbrug article here, its in danish, or from another source in English: http://www.arc2020.eu/front/2012/04/gm-free-cymru-flags-up-danish-success/).

In Denmark, the taxpayers are now paying individuals and companies not to spray any herbicide / pesticides on their land so that people in the town can have fresh water.  According to gylle.dk the 256,000 inhabitants of Århus, where I live, has 112 landowners in the municipality that share 23.7 million DKK in one-time compensation and 700,000 DKK in annual tax.

Update: Chemical Cocktail in Monsanto’s Roundup, May 2016

“Until recently, the fight over Roundup has mostly focused on its active ingredient, glyphosate. But mounting evidence, including one study published in February, shows it’s not only glyphosate that’s dangerous, but also chemicals listed as “inert ingredients” in some formulations of Roundup and other glyphosate-based weed killers. Though they have been in herbicides — and our environment — for decades, these chemicals have evaded scientific scrutiny and regulation in large part because the companies that make and use them have concealed their identity as trade secrets.  Now, as environmental scientists have begun to puzzle out the mysterious chemicals sold along with glyphosate, evidence that these so-called inert ingredients are harmful has begun to hit U.S. courts.” Read more here: https://theintercept.com/2016/05/17/new-evidence-about-the-dangers-of-monsantos-roundup/

Update: TEDtalks June 2013

The Gene Revolution, The Future of Agriculture

Thierry Vrain retired 10 years ago after a long career as a soil biologist and ended head of a department of molecular biology running his own research program to engineer nematode resistance genes in crops. In his retirement career as a gardener he learned five or six years ago how the soil ecosystem really functions and have been preaching ever since. He find himself with a good knowledge of genetic engineering technologies surrounded by people in fear of being hurt by the food they eat. He found that he cannot ignore them anymore and has joined the campaign to educate consumers about the potential health problems reported in the recent scientific literature.

Update: WHO Report Feb 2013

Effects of human exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals examined in landmark UN report.

The World Health Organization (WHO) released a report on 19 February 2013 that calls for more research to fully understand the associations between endocrine disrupting chemicals and specific diseases and disorders.  Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the following areas of the body: Pineal gland, Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid glands, Thymus, Heart, Kidney, Adrenal glands, Gastrointestinal tract, Adipose tissue (fat), Pancreatic islets, Testes and Ovaries.

“Human health depends on a well-functioning endocrine system to regulate the release of certain hormones that are essential for functions such as metabolism, immunity, growth and development, sleep and mood. Some substances known as endocrine disruptors can alter the function(s) of this hormonal system increasing the risk of adverse health effects” and “interfere with important developmental processes in humans and wildlife.”

According to the report summary, the groups of chemicals that might be prioritized are chemicals that adversely affect, among others, the reproductive, endocrine, immune or nervous systems. These chemicals that have “have become a part of everyday life” have diverse applications, such as pesticides, flame retardants in different products, plastic additives and cosmetics, which may result in residues or contaminants in food and other products. “Therefore, EDCs may be released from the products that contain them” and “there is also mounting evidence for effects of these chemicals on thyroid function, brain function, obesity and metabolism, and insulin and glucose homeostasis.”

Here are some of the key concerns they talk about

1. Human and wildlife health depends on the ability to reproduce and develop normally. This is not possible without a healthy endocrine system.

2.  The evidence that fuels concern, increasing trends of endocrine-related disorders, observations in wildlife populations and outcomes in laboratory studies.

3. Many endocrine-related diseases and disorders are on the rise, including low semen quality, genital malformations, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurobehavioural disorders associated with Thyroid disruption, global rates of endocrine-related cancers like breast, endometrial, ovarian, prostate, testicular, trends towards early onset of breast development and the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

4. Nearly 800 chemicals are known or suspected, but only a small fraction have been investigated – in fact they say that the vast majority of chemicals in current commercial use have not been tested at all.

5. The level of exposure to human and wildlife populations all over the world, including food and drinking water.

6. The speed with which the increases in diseases have occurred in recent decades rules out genetic factors and associations have become apparent.

7. Internationally agreed and validated test methods for the identification of endocrine disruptors capture only a limited range of the known spectrum of endocrine disrupting effects. This increases the likelihood that harmful effects in humans and wildlife are being overlooked and the risk may be significantly underestimated.

Reference: http://www.who.int and The News release with a link to the report: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/hormone_disrupting_20130219/en/

List of Contaminants from the WHO report with evidence

I can highly recommend doing additional reading, a good place to start is to look at the similarities between so many diseases, like Autism, Diabetes and Alzheimer’s, how they are linked to levels of chemicals and inflammation and what they have discovered when they look at the brains of people affected.  For example: Corpora arenacea (or brain sand) are calcified structures in the Pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus – and chemical analysis shows that they are composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate, and ammonium phosphate – all of these are being used daily in our environment.  In addition, look at the Circadian rhythm and its importance in human health, sleep, memory etc. The “phase markers” for measuring the timing of a mammal’s circadian rhythm includes melatonin secretion by the pineal gland.   According to Robert A  Zimmerman in “Age-Related Incidence of Pineal Calcification Detected by Computed Tomography”  it is estimated that 40% of Americans’s pineal gland is calsified by their 17th year.  This rate varies greatly by country, age, diet etc.  I hope we will see allot more studies on this topic over the next few years.  Reference source: Wikipedia

Ever wondered if our thoughts affect our health?  March 2013 to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychosomatic Society in the USA finds that “Dwelling On Stressful Events Can Increase Inflammation in the Body.

Latest Independent GMO Studies

During March 2013 the University of Brasil’s Department of Genetics and Morphology published a study that states that the biopesticides engineered into crops like corn, soy, sugar cane, etc. carry what is known as Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt), also called Cry-toxins, contribute to all sorts of health problems including Blood abnormalities, Hematological malignancies (blood cancers), i.e. leukemia , Suppression of bone marrow proliferation and Abnormal lymphocyte patterns.  In addition they state that Bt toxins used in prevalent GMOs can target mammalian cells, particularly of the erythroid lineage (red blood cells) which results in damage to the cells that is significant enough to start as anemia, and end up as cancer.   They also found that Cry toxins were capable of exerting their damaging effects even when suspended in distilled water, and did not require alkalinization through an insect’s physiological form to become activated.

They suggest that further studies are required to clarify the mechanism involved in the hematotoxicity found in mice, and to establish the toxicological risks to non-target organisms, especially mammals, before concluding that these microbiological control agents are safe for mammals.

Journal Reference: Mezzomo BP, Miranda-Vilela AL, Freire IdS, Barbosa LCP, Portilho FA, et al. (2013) Hematotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis as Spore-crystal Strains Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or Cry2Aa in Swiss Albino Mice. J Hematol Thromb Dis 1:104. doi: 10.4172/jhtd.1000104

On 19 September 2012, this study came out: “In the first ever study to examine the long-term effects of Monsanto’s Roundup weedkiller, or the NK603 Roundup-resistant GM maize also developed by Monsanto, scientists found that rats exposed to even the smallest amounts, developed mammary tumours and severe liver and kidney damage as early as four months in males, and seven months for females, compared with 23 and 14 months respectively for a control group. ‘This research shows an extraordinary number of tumours developing earlier and more aggressively – particularly in female animals. I am shocked by the extreme negative health impacts,’ said Dr Michael Antoniou, molecular biologist at King’s College London, and a member of CRIIGEN, the independent scientific council which supported the research.”  Read the whole article here: http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/topics/technology-and-supply-chain/monsanto-weedkiller-and-gm-maize-in-shocking-cancer-study/232603.article

In early October a few people including the European Food Safety Authority rejected this study, but French scientist Gilles-Eric Seralini said “It’s out of the question that those who authorised NK603 carry out a counter-study of our findings as there’d be a conflict of interest.”  Hopefully some independent peer review’s will be available in the coming months.  EU sides with Monsanto in ‘GMO Cancer Corn’ word war, from Russia Today.

A study from 2012 finds that all the glyphosate-based herbicides tested are more toxic than glyphosate alone, and explains why this is important – Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity.  Glyphosate is supposed to be the ‘active ingredient’ of Roundup, the most widely used herbicide in the world, and it is present in a large group of Roundup-like herbicides. It has been safety tested on mammals for the purposes of regulatory risk assessment. But the commercial formulations of these pesticides as they are sold and used contain added ingredients that help to stabilize the chemical compound glyphosate and help it to penetrate plants, in the manner of corrosive detergents. The formulated herbicides (including Roundup) can affect all living cells, especially human cells. This danger is overlooked because glyphosate and Roundup are treated as the same by industry and regulators in long-term studies – The health and environmental agencies and pesticide companies assess the long-term effects on mammals of glyphosate alone, and not the full formulation.  Sources:  The Journal Report: Mesnage R., Bernay B., Seralini G-E. (2013, in press). Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity. Toxicology.

So what are GMO’s and what is the evidence for requiring more independent research, labeling etc?

GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms – i.e genetically engineering. When you genetically modify, move a gene from one organism to another, and thus you create a GMO.   Are there any concerns?  There are allot of sources out there that list allot of health problems, including animal studies.  Manufacturers have also produced some studies from which they draw the conclusion that there is no need for concern.   Here is the Wiki controversies page so you can look for yourself: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_food_controversies.

Perhaps it is about more than just the crops but the use of chemicals.

Dr. Don Huber, professor emeritus at Purdue University and internationally-recognized plant pathologist, wrote a letter in 2011 to US Department of Agriculture (USDA), warning him and apparently people in the EU about a new mystery disease showing up primarily in genetically-modified (GM) crops.  Apparently research conducted by a team of senior plant and animal scientists found that Monsanto’s glyphosate chemical, which is the primary ingredient in its popular RoundUp herbicide formula, appears responsible for infecting plants with a syndrome that destroys their immunity, blocks their absorption of certain vitamins and minerals, and eventually kills them.  Dr. Huber explains in his letter here and here.  See further down an article from January 2013 with an update on research that links Parkinson’s Disease with pesticides.

Until more conclusive human and animal studies are done I think it is important to let people decide for themselves what they want to eat, and to do that, GMO products should be labelled sufficiently.

Note: This article gets updated as I find more information, it is by no means conclusive and it is impossible to make a general statement about the safety of GMO foods.  I do think that there is a lack of transparency and information for people and that is why there are so many questions.  People asking questions and requesting labelling could encourage the manufacturers to do additional long term studies (that are independently reviewed) and so put to rest any concerns people around the world have.  And just to be clear, I am not accusing anyone or any organisation of intentionally doing anything harmful, the question is if there are products being used and consumed around the world that could possibly accelerate disease over the long term, which is a valid question and can be answered.   Health is a global issue and considering the vast differences in cultures, needs and practices, we can work together to find the best solutions for everyone.

What do you think?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_food and http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Genetic_modification

Seed Patents and Biopiracy

I think it is important to mention that I have come across several sources that consider the patenting of seeds the really big problem, this is what many of the lawsuits are about.  For some information visit the Seed Freedom Movement.  Additional resources I have not looked at yet: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge: BiopiracyCorporate Hijack of BiodiversityHealth per Acre: Organic Solutions to Hunger and MalnutritionManifesto on the future of seeds; Seed Wars (Video) and Seeds of Freedom (Video).

Around the world

According to Russia Today, France has strict regulations of GM crops, while GMOs are completely banned in Germany, Greece, Austria, Luxembourg, Hungary, and the UK (October 2012).  There are also several others have taken action against GMO crops and GM foods altogether due to safety hazards these products pose on human health, the ecosystem, and the environment.  These crops are also banned in several countries, lots of resources online where you can check for your own country and their policies.

Europe

There are a huge number of resources available, but here is a report by GreenPeace International “No Marker for GM labelled food in Europe” from 2005.

GMOs and the German Constitutional Law:  “In view of science’s still unfinished assessment of the long-term consequences of the use of genetic engineering, the legislature has a special duty to be careful and to consider Article 20a, which includes responsibility to future generations and protecting the natural environment,” the court wrote.  Article 20a is an article in Germany’s Basic Law, added in 1994, that declares that the state “shall protect the natural bases of life.” (The article is from 2010)

The cover picture is of a GM potato planted in Denmark: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amflora.  You can read more here too: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/mar/03/eu-approves-gm-food-potatohttp://www.gaia-health.com/articles151/000193-europe-approves-antibiotic-resistant-genetically-modified-potato.shtml, and http://www.trendceteramag.com/2010/10/european-union-member-states-debate-gmo-crops/.  The picture is also from the same sites.

Brasil

During March 2013 the University of Brasil’s Department of Genetics and Morphology published a study that states that the biopesticides engineered into crops like corn, soy, sugar cane, etc. carry what is known as Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt), also called Cry-toxins, which contribute to all sorts of health problems including Blood abnormalities, Hematological malignancies (blood cancers), i.e. leukemia , Suppression of bone marrow proliferation and Abnormal lymphocyte patterns.

In addition they state that Bt toxins used in prevalent GMOs can target mammalian cells, particularly of the erythroid lineage (red blood cells) which results in damage to the cells that is significant enough to start as anemia, and end up as cancer.   They also found that Cry toxins were capable of exerting their damaging effects even when suspended in distilled water, and did not require alkalinization through an insect’s physiological form to become activated.

They suggest that further studies are required to clarify the mechanism involved in the hematotoxicity found in mice, and to establish the toxicological risks to non-target organisms, especially mammals, before concluding that these microbiological control agents are safe for mammals.

Journal Reference: Mezzomo BP, Miranda-Vilela AL, Freire IdS, Barbosa LCP, Portilho FA, et al. (2013) Hematotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis as Spore-crystal Strains Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or Cry2Aa in Swiss Albino Mice. J Hematol Thromb Dis 1:104. doi: 10.4172/jhtd.1000104

USA

I found this specific video that covers allot of the health issues and has several interviews and sources as a starting point for your own investigation: http://geneticroulettemovie.com/ – it is from an American perspective and there are websites that criticize it so also use other sources.  You can also read the list of 65 health risks associated with GMO from responsibletechnology.org.  Here is a GMO statement by the American Academy of Environmental Medicine urging more research and investigation.

The company Monsanto produces 90 percent of the genetically engineered seed on the United States market according to Natural Society.  Look at the controversies and legal issues in their wiki page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto.  Here is a review from naturalsociety.com: http://naturalsociety.com/monsanto-declared-worst-company-of-2011/.  They have some explanations on their website where they defend their reasoning and why its safe, why it doesnt need to be tested etc. http://www.monsanto.com/newsviews/Pages/food-safety.aspx.

Read the article “300,000 Organic Farmers Sue Monsanto in Federal Court” from earlier in 2012.

Many people in the US are currently fighting for GMO labelling and awareness: www.fooddemocracynow.org.  In November 2012 California will be the first state to vote.  Apparently more than 90% are in favour of GMO labelling while many corporations have put up huge sums of money (millions in some cases) opposing it, including Monsanto, Dupont & Co, Bayer, Dow Agrosciences, Pepsico, Nestle, Coca Cola, Syngenta Corporation, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Kraft Foods, Heinz, Hershey, Mars, Campbell, Dole, McCain Foods USA, Godiva, Clorox, Morton Salt, Richelieu Foods, Wrigley, and the list goes on.  These are all products we find world wide, it affects everyone.

Canada

Here is information about a scientific study that showed traces of GM toxins found in the blood of unborn baies, 93% in fact.  They believe that they are getting it from drinking milk and eating meat and other livestock products like eggs which have been fed on GM foods. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1388888/GM-food-toxins-blood-93-unborn-babies.html

Poland

January 2013:  Poland Bans Genetically Modified Crops.  Poland’s Ministry of Agriculture is taking advantage of a special ‘safeguard clause’ which allowed them to reject GM crops to protect their agricultural base from contamination.  Recently, the European Union approved two GM crops for Europe, Monsanto’s MON810 Maize, and BASF’s Amflora Potato, however, Poland’s ban will take effect on January 28, 2013.  http://www.wakingtimes.com/2013/01/08/poland-bans-genetically-modified-crops/

Romania

Look at this story:  Romania must not sell out traditional farmers to the biotech giants:  http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jul/10/romania-smallhold-farmers.

India

GMO Truths and Myths by “GM Free India”

Navdanya is an India-based organisation actively involved in the rejuvenation of indigenous knowledge and culture. It has created awareness on the hazards of genetic engineering, defended people’s knowledge from biopiracy and food rights in the face of globalisation. Navdanya promotes biodiversity conservation, organic farming, the rights of farmers, and the process of seed saving.

“Since the 1990s, when Tatapudi and other nephrologists began noticing the unusual strain of CKD in Uddanam, various theories of the disease’s origins have emerged. Most have centered on toxic exposure. An unpublished study by a team of researchers from Uddanam and Stony Brook University concluded that the disease is ‘most likely to be the result of a chronic exposure to an environmental agent.'”   Note that results of the studies done by Harvard and others have not been published,  it is possible that a variety of factors will be responsible.  I will update this section when I get more information.

Egypt

In an article from August 2012 from the Egypt Independent “Tests on rats suggest genetically modified foods pose health hazards.”

Argentina

Argentina’s Roundup Human Tragedy – “GM soy a death sentence for humans and the environment.”

“Argentina has become a giant experiment in farming genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready (RR) soy, engineered to be tolerant to Roundup, Monsanto’s formulation of the herbicide glyphosate. The Argentine government, eager to pull the country out of a deep economic recession in the 1990s, restructured its economy around GM soy grown for export, most of which goes to feed livestock in Europe. In 2009, GM soy was planted on 19 million hectares – over half of Argentina’s cultivated land – and sprayed with 200 million litres of glyphosate herbicide [1]. Spraying is often carried out from the air, causing problems of drift.

In 2002, two years after the first big harvests of RR soy in the country, residents and doctors in soy producing areas began reporting serious health effects from glyphosate spraying, including high rates of birth defects as well as infertility, stillbirths, miscarriages, and cancers [2]. Environmental effects include killed food crops and livestock and streams strewn with dead fish [2, 3].”  Source: http://www.i-sis.org.uk/argentinasRoundupHumanTragedy.php

Russia

From a couple of years ago:  “Russia says genetically modified foods are harmful”.  and one fromSeptember 2012: “Russia Suspends Import and Use of American GM Corn After Study Revealed Cancer Risk”

Australia / New Zealand

From September 2012: The West Australian “A world-renowned scientist has warned that one of the CSIRO’s genetically modified wheat varieties has the potential to cause a deadly disease that attacks the liver.  The Safe Food Foundation, which commissioned the investigation, called on the CSIRO to reveal the details of the sequence used so independent researchers could investigate the ramifications for humans.”

An anti GM group in New Zealand wants the government to shut down research into an allergen free milk produced by a cloned cow – from October 2012.

Sri Lanka, Central and South America etc

I know they grow some GM crops in various parts, and the governments is currently talking to the World Health Organisation (WHO) about concerns over an epidemic of kidney disease.  The article is from The Center of Public Integrity September 2012. “It is possible that each epidemic has a different cause: pesticides in one place, hard labor in another and an unexamined risk factor such as genetics in the third.”  When there is more information available I will update this section.

“In Sri Lanka, breakthroughs, setbacks and a spiritual touch”   “To some, the government and WHO’s reticence to release more information raises the possibility that the undisclosed evidence points toward the agrochemicals and rice crops that form the economic backbone of Sri Lanka’s long-suffering northern countryside.”   I am not able to find any good sources at the moment on the type of crops they are growing in several of these countries, so it could be a combination of food they are eating, pesticides and possible other factors.

In April 2013 The Center of Public Integrity again reports on the situation in South America:  “Over the last two years, the Center for Public Integrity has examined how a rare type of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is killing thousands of agricultural workers along Central America’s Pacific Coast, as well as in Sri Lanka and India. Scientists have yet to definitively uncover the cause of the malady, although emerging evidence points to toxic heavy metals contained in pesticides as a potential culprit.

“At the conference, El Salvador presented findings from an ongoing official study, conducted jointly with the Pan American Health Organization, suggesting that pesticides and fertilizers containing heavy metals may be to blame. Environmental tests of soil and water samples in a village heavily affected by CKD, Ciudad Romero, found the presence of high levels of cadmium and arsenic, heavy metals toxic to the kidneys. Among a sample of 42 residents of Ciudad Romero who suffer from CKD, all reported applying pesticides without any protective equipment.  A national sample of 46 CKD patients found that 96% reported using pesticides, and medical tests of these patients revealed additional symptoms such as impaired reflexes and damage to arteries in the lower limbs that suggest toxic poisoning.”

“El Salvador’s findings echo those in Sri Lanka. An official study there, conducted by the Sri Lankan health ministry in partnership with the World Health Organization, documented elevated levels of cadmium and arsenic contained in agrochemicals and within environmental samples from the endemic region — and found the same heavy metals in samples of urine, hair and nails of patients. Sri Lanka also found residues of several pesticides in the urine of many of the affected patients.”

“Scientists from the Salvadorean and Sri Lankan research teams also suspect that toxic additives to pesticides, or dangerous combinations of chemicals, may pose health risks additional to those presented by the products themselves.”  Read the full story: New urgency targets mysterious kidney disease in Central America.

South Africa

South Africa publishes updated GMO labeling requirements after food producers violate law from October 2012.  “New draft amendments published by South Africa’s Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) are being hailed as a major victory for food freedom, as they update key sections of a 2011 law that was intended to mandate the labeling of all foods containing genetically-modified organisms (GMOs). According to numerous sources, the amendments will close several unintended loopholes that have allowed unscrupulous food producers to flout the law in regards to GMO labeling.”

From March 2011, from labelgmfoods.org.za “it was reported that many foods being sold in South Africa were not properly labeled in accordance with CPA guidelines. A popular infant cereal produced by Nestle; for instance, known as Cerelac Honey, was found to contain 78 percent GM corn in violation of the law. And another wheat-free cereal known as Bokomo’s Pronutro contained 71 percent GM soy, and more than 90 percent GM corn, both in violation of the law.”

Pesticides and Parkinson’s Disease

Pesticides kill insects, while herbicides kill plants, but I think they might both be applicable to this subject.  An article from January 3, 2013 — “For several years, neurologists at UCLA have been building a case that a link exists between pesticides and Parkinson’s disease. To date, paraquat, maneb and ziram — common chemicals sprayed in California’s Central Valley and elsewhere — have been tied to increases in the disease, not only among farmworkers but in individuals who simply lived or worked near fields and likely inhaled drifting particles.”

“Even more significantly, the research suggests that the damaging series of events set in motion by benomyl may also occur in people with Parkinson’s disease who were never exposed to the pesticide, according to Jeff Bronstein, senior author of the study and a professor of neurology at UCLA, and his colleagues.”

Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130104101427.htm.  Journal Reference: Journal Reference: J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice. Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012

Safety and testing of genetically engineered foods

Here is a paper by John B. Fagan, Ph.D on “Assessing the safety of nutritional qaulity of geneticall engineered foods” where he talks about the hazards and risks.  He has a Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology.

GM foods linked to obesity?

There are several pieces of information out there that do talk about studies that have shown mice/rat to gain weight when eating GM foods.  Some articles as a starting point:   A study published in the International Journal of Biological Sciences shows that GMO corn and other GM food is contributing to obesity and causing organ disruption. Read it here: http://naturalsociety.com/monsantos-gmo-corn-contributing-to-weight-gain-disrupts-organs/ and http://www.fastcoexist.com/1680218/genetically-modified-food-may-be-why-youre-fat

GMO Technology & fertility?

“Studies indicate that factors like glyphosate toxicity and GMO technologies could be playing a significant role in the growing number of men who struggle with fertility.”  Read the article here on Natural Society: naturalsociety.com/gmo-technology-glyphosate-toxicity-men-sterile/

GM Mosquitoes

Can GM mosquitoes rid the world of a major killer?  Is it safe?  http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/jul/15/gm-mosquitoes-dengue-fever-feature

 

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